582 THE IRON INDUSTRY. TABLE XXVII-E. List of Steel Works in Moravia (Mahren) and Silesia (Schlesien). Name of Plant. Location. No. of Bessemer Converters. No. of Open Hearth Furnaces. Annual Output; tons. Acid. Basic. Acid. Basic. Witkowitz Bergbau, etc.. j Witkowitz . Witkowitz . Teschen . . . 2* 8* 4 7 150,000 25.000 60,000 2 SEC. XXVIId.—Styria (see No. 3 on Map): A journey to a steel plant is not usually looked upon as a pleasure from an aesthetic point of view, but there is one exception in a visit to the beautiful valley where the ancient town of Leoben and the steel works of Donawitz lie peacefully hidden in the shadow of the Alps. At the end of the valley, only a few miles away, is a mountain towering in a huge cone nearly 5000 feet above, the sea and 3000 feet above the hamlet below. This is the Erzberg or Ore Mountain. The whole surface is a layer of spathic ore from 200 to 500 feet thick and it is mined by a succession of terraces all the way up the mountain side. This deposit has been known from most ancient times, the present province of Styria being a part of the Eoman province of Noricum, from whence came a large portion of the weapons of the Eoman legions and other iron instruments of the Empire. In fact, Styria and Carinthia both claim the "rather doubtful honor" of supplying the nails for the cross upon Calvary. Certain it is that the mines were worked tens of thousands of years before that., for the remains of primeval man have been found beside the unburned charcoal of prehistoric forges. A modern plant of blast furnaces has been built at Eisenerz, near the Erzberg, and during 1902 the output per furnace was upwards of 450 tons per day of white pig, with a consumption of 1900 pounds of coke per ton of iron. The ore is a carbonate of about the following composition: The ore is roasted in kilns, giving 50 per cent, in iron. It is smelted with coke from Westphalia and Austrian Silesia, the first * These converters and furnaces are worked by the " combined " or " duplex " process.